Retorno al hogar

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Los salones modernos recuperan el concepto primigenio de esta estancia como lugar más importante de la casa, donde se encuentra el “hogar” en torno al cual se reúne la familia. Una mirada a la historia y evolución del salón nos revela que no estamos tan lejos como creemos de nuestros antepasados.

Rocío Macho / @RocioMacho

 

Deténgase un momento a pensar cuál es el lugar de su casa donde más tiempo pasa. Indudablemente, y no es casualidad, éste será el salón. Antiguamente llamado “sala”, ya en la prehistoria era el espacio más importante de la casa, bien se tratase de una cueva o una choza. El centro neurálgico de la vivienda era donde se encendía el fuego, en torno al cual se reunía la tribu-familia para cocinar, comer y mantenerse caliente.

Salón de Llass

 

Sorprende descubrir que en las viviendas humildes de Europa la cocina no se separó del salón hasta el siglo XIX, debido al gasto que suponía mantener dos fuegos encendidos en una casa -uno para el salón y otro para la cocina-. Cocina y salón compartían un espacio en el que los miembros de la familia incluso dormían para protegerse del frío invierno. Con el progreso de la sociedad y la llegada de comodidades modernas como la calefacción, las cocinas fueron convirtiéndose en independientes y el salón se empezó a utilizar únicamente como lugar en el que el propietario de la casa y su familia se reunían, charlaban o recibían a las visitas. Todo ello sin perder ese carácter primitivo del fuego en torno al cual todos se juntan y que a día de hoy podría decirse que ha sido sustituido por la televisión. La costumbre de ubicar la chimenea en el salón también se mantiene, transformándose, sin embargo, en un elemento decorativo y un símbolo de confort y estatus social, ya que actualmente no cualquier casa puede contar con una chimenea.

 

Mueble auxiliar de Piñero

 

Salones de palacio

El concepto del salón ostentoso, pensado para ser visto más que vivido, es originario de la Francia e Inglaterra del siglo XVIII, cuando los palacios de la nobleza y las casas de los burgueses más adinerados eran los únicos hogares que podían permitirse muebles de mayor calidad, mejores maderas, sofás tapizados y aparadores en los que mostrar objetos más decorativos que funcionales como la porcelana. Esto por no hablar del auge del papel pintado, todo un hito en la decoración de la época y una característica de la clase adinerada.

Estas costumbres palaciegas entroncan con el estilo clásico de nuestros días. La nobleza en los materiales, la robustez y los detalles y acabados más recargados define las piezas clásicas, sólo aptas para espacios de grandes dimensiones y consumidores con mayores recursos económicos. En este estilo el sofá es un símbolo de distinción, así como la mesa principal, que cobra protagonismo en las reuniones alrededor de la comida, con formas ovaladas y ornamentación artesanal como la marquetería. Bibliotecas -un lujo que en tiempos pasados estaba únicamente reservado a los ricos- y aparadores completan el salón clásico actual.

 

Salón de Moveis Crispin

 

Ante todo, comodidad

Ya en el siglo XX, con la mejora en general de las condiciones de vida y la reducción de las jornadas laborales en las fábricas, el pueblo llano empieza a preocuparse cada vez más por la decoración de sus salones, acudiendo a un mobiliario funcional que les aporte la comodidad necesaria para dedicar más tiempo a estar en casa. Muebles mejores y más confortables sustituyen a las antiguos bancos y banquetas de madera y las sillas rústicas que amueblaban los salones. Los cojines empiezan a proliferar en todos los hogares y el sofá se democratiza.

Esta decoración funcional se traduce en el mobiliario contemporáneo. La falta de espacio y la necesidad de un mobiliario apto para su uso diario caracteriza la mayoría de las viviendas familiares de nuestro tiempo. En el salón la pieza más importante es el sofá, que debe ser grande, cómodo y estar realizado en materiales resistentes y lavables, puesto que está pensado para utilizarse cada día y no sólo para las visitas. Triunfan las versiones con chaise-longue, los respaldos reclinables y las opciones modulares que se adaptan a espacios difíciles.

Junto al sofá, el mueble auxiliar sustituye, como decíamos, a la chimenea en los hogares modernos. La televisión y otros electrodomésticos destinados al ocio familiar, como el Blue Ray o las videoconsolas precisan su espacio destacado en el salón. Por ello los auxiliares se han adaptado a las nuevas necesidades, incorporando compartimentos especiales para dichos aparatos sin descuidar la estética de unas piezas que buscan el minimalismo y la funcionalidad. Al mismo tiempo, ofrecen más espacio de almacenaje sin sacrificar el estilo limpio y sencillo del mueble, gracias a los cajones con autocierre o las puertas sin tiradores que ocultan estantes o la propia televisión, dejando a la vista grandes frentes lisos.

 

Cocina con isla (imagen: universodecoracion.com)

 

Cocina integrada, una vuelta a los orígenes

A pesar de separarse del salón, la cocina nunca ha perdido su importancia dentro del hogar, y menos aún con la proliferación de viviendas cada vez más pequeñas y las nuevas familias que ven su número de miembros reducido. En las ciudades modernas los espacios comunes parecen encoger y debemos buscar la fórmula para tener todo lo necesario para vivir con comodidad a pesar de la carencia de espacio.

Por ello, y como una vuelta a los orígenes ancestrales del salón, las cocinas se integran en éste y recuperan su papel de centro de la casa. Separadas generalmente por una barra americana, un arco en la pared o una isla -un tipo de cocina muy en boga en los últimos años-, la amplitud de la oferta decorativa permite incluso que salón y cocina compartan materiales y acabados en su respectivo mobiliario. Cocina, comedor y salón vuelven a ser uno, con la ventaja de que la decoración contemporánea facilita la separación virtual de los espacios y garantiza el mayor confort y una estética al gusto de los exigentes consumidores modernos. La sociedad avanza y gracias a ello podemos quedarnos con lo mejor del pasado y del presente. Porque, como dice el antropólogo Pina-Cabral, “casa son los que comen juntos”.

 

 

 

 

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