El futuro del contract: Repensar, reutilizar y reordenar

Categorías: Estudio - Tags: ,

Arquitectura y sostenibilidad centraron los debates y coloquios organizados en torno a la edición de 2011 de Arquinset, la Semana de Arquitectura.

En los últimos 20 años, las estrategias utilizadas parta reducir el impacto ambiental de las industrias se han centrado en la mejora de sus procesos productivos a través de la implantación de sistemas de gestión medioambiental (p. ej. ISO 14001, EMAS, etc.) o acciones de tratamiento denominados de final de tubo. Es decir, si la empresa tenía un problema de contaminación de sus aguas residuales instalaba una depuradora, si el problema era de contaminación atmosférica instalaba un filtro en su chimenea.

Más recientemente, y delante de la gran cantidad de residuos generados por el consumo de productos aparece la estrategia de las 3R: Reducir siempre que sea posible, Reutilizar como segunda opción y Reciclar como última opción. Aunque es cierto que este tipo de estrategias han resultado efectivas en la mejora ambiental de determinados aspectos a nivel local (p. ej. mejora en la calidad de las aguas de nuestros ríos), también se ha constatado que han sido inefectivas para la mejora de problemas ambientales globales (p. ej. el calentamiento del planeta por el denominado efecto invernadero, etc.). Esto es debido a diferentes factores: en muchos productos su etapa de mayor impacto no se produce en su fase de producción, es decir, en la fábrica donde se está elaborando el producto, si no en otras fases de su ciclo de vida (p. ej. más del 90% del impacto producido por un coche considerando todas las etapas de su vida se produce durante la fase de uso); los productos no están diseñado en la mayoría de los casos para que los consumidores puedan reutilizarlos con facilidad ni para que su reciclado sea efectivo (normalmente en cualquier proceso de reciclaje es necesario introducir material virgen para que el producto resultante tenga una calidad aceptable); ni incluso la reducción del consumo resulta efectiva teniendo en cuenta que un elevado porcentaje de los productos dependen de recursos no renovables y no están hechos para evitar su impacto ni en la fase de uso ni en la fase de residuo, su reducción, por tanto, no soluciona el problema, simplemente ganamos tiempo antes de que se hagan palpables sus consecuencias.

Entonces, ¿qué podemos hacer? La única solución posible es Repensar la manera en cómo estamos haciendo las cosas, intentando que los ciclos de los productos sean ciclos cerrados que se asemejen a los ciclos naturales. No estaría mal, que un día al coger el coche en vez de un humo negro saliendo por su tubo de escape viéramos sólo vapor de agua, que cuando nos hubiéramos bebido una bebida pudiéramos utilizar su envase para abonar nuestras plantas, etc. Sólo repensando nuestra manera de producir seremos capaces de incidir sobre los problemas ambientales globales. Sería necesario ponerse ya a pensar en ello.

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